In Lev Manovitch’s article he attempts to document on how hybrid visual tools have evolved in the media over the last 30 years. In doing so, the article covers many areas and gives many examples. These range from the mainstream films such as Terminator and Titianic, to areas involving CAD (Computer Aided Design) which aren’t even connected to the media, which are the CAD tolls used in modern architecture.
It is interesting that Manovitch references Terminator and Titanic which are both James Cameron films, as recently James Cameron has put an end to his inactivity in Hollywood by creating (and now having released) Avatar. This film as broken box office records at least partially due to its groundbreaking use of Hybrid/converged visual styles, cunningly merged together to seamlessly interact with the real live-action characters, which is a far cry from the likes of ‘who framed roger rabbit’ (1988)
Manovitch also makes reference to the graphical styles of Larry and Andy Wachowski’s Matrix series (1999–2003), and Zack
Snyder’s 300 (2007) being more traditionally related to illustration rather than filmmaking. He is right to say this as the Matrix’s visual style and cinematography is directly inspired from anime films such as Ghost in the Shell and Akira, where the animated media is used to create effects that are simply not noticed or even possible in live-action media. While ‘green screen’ equipment have been used in the film industry for many years before The Matrix, it is one of the first films to effectively converge the two visual techniques of advanced ‘green screen’ equipment and Japanese anime graphical styles.
Manovitch’s references to the relatively new image and movie editing programs such as Photoshop and the film ‘Sodium Fox’ (2005) by Blake fitted very well into the concept of media hybrids. Sodium Fox was a vast array of different visual styles, using layers and 2D animation, where as Photoshop allows people to create and manipulate new images using a series of layes and computer-generated affects.
Overall Manovitch gave the impression of hybrid media as being a new and very interesting aspect of the media and wider society, a change that is becoming increasingly more sophisticated and yet seamless into our lives.